Paediatric conditions

Spine deformities, scoliosis, kyphosis, lordosis, flat feet

Rapid growth, insufficient physical activity, sitting at the computer, carrying school bags that are too heavy and myopia are all external and internal factors which lead to a growing number of deformities of the musculoskeletal system in preschool and school children.

Spine deformities in children

The most common consequence of rapid growth and an improper sitting position is the curvature of the spine called kyphosis.

The lateral curvature of the spine, in one or two planes, is manifested as a dropped shoulder and is called scoliosis. The cause of scoliosis is unknown, but usually one of the parents has the condition. Neglected cases might even require surgery.

Weak abdominal muscles result in an exaggerated curvature of the spine in the lumbar region called lordosis.

These deformities can be cured if treatment is started in the early stages of the condition. Otherwise, patients can have a curved spine all their life and, in severe cases, may require surgery, which involves temporary implantation of metal rods – fixation devices, which help to keep the spine in the proper position.

The treatment involves condition-specific corrective exercises. The exercises are aimed at strengthening weak muscles and stretching shortened muscles. Sets of exercises include breathing exercises and exercises for strengthening abdominal and back muscles.

Flat feet in children

Parents usually realize that their child has a foot deformity when they notice that the child has a problem with footwear. Typically the shoes will pinch and by shuffling their feet children will wear them out very quickly. In children with flat feet the central arch of the sole or almost the entire plantar surface of the foot which rests on the ground is collapsed. The child has no symptoms.

Poor posture can gradually lead to the formation of scoliosis.


Flat feet are corrected by a set of exercises tailored to the child’s age and abilities. It is important that the parents are as cooperative as the child.